World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace was timed to coincide with the Recovered Territories Exhibition. Communist authorities intended that event (held on 25-28 August 1948) to become an evidence of international support to reconstruction of Poland, which had been under the influence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Organizers invited some 4000 delegates from 46 countries to Wrocław – writers, artists and scientists. Guests invited by the communist authorities included such personages as Pablo Picasso, Bertolt Brecht, Irene Joliot-Cure, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Anna Seghers, Jorge Amado, Zofia Nałkowska and Michaił Szołochow.
Positive atmosphere of the Congress was interrupted by Alexander Fadeyev. In his fiery and pro-communist speech, the Soviet writer attacked the United States and „decadent art” of the West. It caused general resentment among the delegates, and some of them decided not to continue their participation in the Congress and left Wrocław.